* NEONATAL HSV .. YES .. MAJORITY OF NEONATAL INFECTIONS ARE CAUSED BY .. HSV-II .. USEFUL .. INFORMATIVE POST ..
An important and also helpful information Sir. Thanks@Medi- Insights for your valuable sharing.
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Useful information Tq
VERY USEFUL & INFORMATIVE POST ABOUT NEONATAL HSV. INTRODUCTION CLINICAL PRESENTATION SIGN & SYMPTOMS OF NEONATAL HSV RISK REDUCTION & TREATMENT. THANKS FOR SHARING SUCH AN INVALUABLE INFORMATION.
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V v v important DRUGS OF CHOICE ---------------------------------- 1. Paracetamol poisoning- :- - acetyl cysteine 2. acute bronchial- asthma :- salbutamol 3. acute gout :- NSAIDS 4. acute hyperkalemia:- calcium gluconate 5. severe DIGITALIS toxicity :- DIGIBIND 6. acute migraine :- sumatriptan 7. cheese reaction :- phentolamine 8. atropine poisoning :- physostigmine 9. cyanide poisoning :- amyl nitrite 10. benzodiazepine poisoning:- flumazenil 11. cholera :- tetracycline 12. KALA-AZAR :- lipozomal amphotericin- B 13. iron poisoning :- desferrioxamine 14. MRSA :- vancomycin 15. VRSA :- LINEZOLID 16. warfarin overdose :- vitamin-K (NIPER- 2009) 17. OCD :- fluoxetine 18. alcohol poisoning :- fomepizole 19.Epilepsy in pregnancy: carbamezepine safe among older epileptics & lamotrigine, levitracetam safe in newer AED! 20. anaphylactic shock :- Adrenaline 21. MRSA Infection-Vancomycin 22. Malaria in Pregnancy-Chloroquine 23. Whooping Cough or Perteusis- Erythromycin 24. Kawasaki disease-IV Ig 25. Warferin Overdose-Vit-K 26. Heparin Overdose-Protamine 27. Hairy Cell Leukemia-Cladirabine 28. Multiple Myeloma- Melphalan 29. CML-Imatinib 30. Wegner's granulomatosis-Cyclophosphamide 31. HOCM- Propranolol 32. Delirium Tremens-Diazepam 33. Drug Induced Parkinsonism-Benzhexol 34. Diacumarol Poisoning-Vit-K 35. Type-1 Lepra Reaction-Steroids 36. Type- 2 Lepra Reaction-Thalidomide 37. Allergic Contect Dermatitis-Steroids 38. PSVT- 1st-Adenosine, 2nd-Verapamil, 3rd-Digoxin 39. Z-E Syndrome- Proton Pump Inhibitor 40. Chancroid-Cotrimoxazole 41. Dermatitis Herpetiformis-Dapsone 42. Spastic Type of Cerebral Palsy-Diazepam 43. Herpis Simplex Keratitis-Trifluridine 44. Herpes Simplex Orolabialis-Pancyclovir 45. Neonatal Herpes Simplex-Acyclovir 46. Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia-Cotrimoxazole For Nodulo 47. 47. Cystic Acne-Retinoic acid 48. Trigeminal Neuralgia-Carbamezapine 49. Actinomycosis-Penicillin 50. Plague- Streptomycin 51. Opioid Withdrawal- Methadone 2nd-Clonidine 52. Alcohol Withdrawal- Chlordiazepoxide 2nd-Diazepam 53. Post Herpetic Neuralgia- Fluphenazine 54. WEST Syndrome-ACTH 55. Diabetic Diarrhoea- Clonidine 56. Lithium Induced Neuropathy-AmilorideCommunicable Disease: 57. Tetanus: PEN G Na; TETRACYCLINE; (DIAZEPAM 58. Diphteria: PEN G K; ERYTHROMYCIN 59. Pertusis: ERYTHROMYCIN; AMPICILLIN 60. Meningitis: MANNITOL (osmotic diuretic);DEXAM ETHASONE (anti-inflammatory); DILANTIN/PHENYTOIN (anti-convulsive); PYRETINOL/ENCEPHABO L (CNS stimulant) 61. Cholera: TETRACYCLINE 62. Amoebic Dysentery: METRONIDAZOLE 63. Shigellosis: CO-TRIMOXAZOLE 64. Typhoid: CHORAMPHENICOL 65. Rabies: LYSSAVAC, VERORAB 66. Immunoglobulins: ERIG or HRIg 67. Malaria: CHLOROQUINE 68. Schistosomiasis: PRAZIQUANTEL 69. Felariasis: DIETHYLCARBAMAZINE CITRATE 70. Scabies: EURAX/ CROTAMITON 71. Chicken pox: ACYCLOVIR/ZOVIRAX 72. Leptospirosis: PENICILLIN; TETRACYCLINE;ER YTHROMYCIN 73. Leprosy: DAPSONE, RIFAMPICIN 74. Anthrax: PENICILLIN 75. Tuberculosis: R.I.P.E.S. 76. Pneumonia: COTRIMOXAZOLE; ProcainePenicillin 77. Helminths: MEBENDAZOLE; PYRANTELPAMOATE 78. Meningitis: MANNITOL (dec. ICP) ;DEXAMETHASONE ( relieve cerebral edema) ;DIAZEPAM ( anticonvulsant); PENICILLIN 79. Syphilis: PENICILLIN 80. Gonorrhea: PENICILLIN...Dr. Rummana Ansari27 Likes19 Answers
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Herpes Herpes is an infection caused by HSV (herpes simplex virus). This virus affects the external genitalia, anal region, mucosal surfaces, and skin in other parts of the body. Herpes is a long-term condition. However, many people never have symptoms even though they are carrying the virus. The herpes simplex virus, also known as HSV, is an infection that causes herpes. ￼ Structure of Herpes simplex virus Types of Herpes There are two types of the herpes simplex virus. HSV-1: Also known as oral herpes, this type can cause cold sores and fever blisters around the mouth and on the face. ￼ HSV-2: This type is generally responsible for genital herpes outbreaks. ￼ Stages of Herpes infection Primary stage This stage usually starts 2 to 8 days after you’re infected, but it can take much longer to begin. Usually, the infection causes groups of small, painful blisters. The fluid in the blisters may be clear or cloudy. The area under the blisters will be red. The blisters break open so easily that they quickly become open sores. You may not ever notice the blisters. Besides having tender blisters or sores in your genital area, it may hurt to urinate. You may run a fever, feel achy and have other flu-like symptoms. While most people have a painful primary stage of infection, some don’t have any symptoms at all, and may not even know they’re infected. ￼ Latent stage During this stage, there are no blisters, sores or other symptoms. At this time, the virus is traveling from your skin into the nerves near your spine. Shedding stage In the shedding stage, the virus starts multiplying in the nerve endings. If the affected nerve endings are in areas of the body that make or are in contact with body fluids, the virus can get into those body fluids (such as saliva, semen or vaginal fluids). There are no symptoms during this stage, but the virus can be spread during this time. Historical Information The origin of herpes in human history is unknown but the Herpes Simplex was first documented by ancient Greeks as sores that seem to “creep” over the surfaces of skin. Vidal, 1873, first demonstrated the Herpes Simplex Virus to be infections caused by human inoculation. There is also evident speculation around two thousand years ago the Roman Emperor Tiberius attempted to curb an epidemic of herpes from the mouth by outlawing kissing during public ceremonies and rituals Prevalence of HSV- 1 and HSV- 2 HSV-1 Prevalence HSV-1 infection is very common. The World Health Organization estimates that 67 percent of all people in the world younger than 50 have HSV-1.In the United States, an estimated 54 percent of people between the ages of 14 and 49 have HSV-1.Most people with HSV-1 become infected during childhood or adolescence.Not everyone with HSV-1 gets cold sores or has symptoms. Many people with the virus don’t even know they’re infected. HSV-2 Prevalence HSV-2 is one of the most prevalent infections in the world. It is estimated that, in the United States, 40-60 million people are infected, with an incidence of 1-2 million infections and 600,000-800,000 new cases per year. The latest HSV-2 data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) at the National Sexually Transmitted Diseases Conference in 2010 in Atlanta indicated that the prevalence of HSV-2 is still high (16.2%), especially among black women, where rates may be as high as 48%. Global prevalence is higher in women compared to men, especially among young people8. There is a six times greater chance of herpes transmission from men to women compared with transmission from women to men. In developed countries, where the acquisition of HSV-1 in childhood has been reduced, HSV-2 seroprevalence has increased, suggesting a possible protective effect of HSV-1 against acquisition of HSV-2. Causes of herpes When HSV is present on the surface of the skin of an infected person, it can easily be passed on to someone else through the moist skin that lines the mouth, anus, and genitals. The virus may also spread to another individual through other areas of skin, as well as the eyes. A human cannot become infected with HSV by touching an object, work surface, washbasin, or towel that has been touched by an infected person. Infection can occur in the following ways: Having unprotected vaginal or anal sexHaving oral sex with a person who gets cold soresSharing sex toysHaving genital contact with an infected person The virus is most likely to be passed on just before the blister appears, when it is visible, and until the blister is completely healed. HSV can still be transmitted to another person when there are no signs of an outbreak, although it is less likely. If a mother with genital herpes has sores while giving birth, it is possible that the infection will be passed on to the baby. Who is at risk of developing herpes simplex infections? Anyone can be infected with HSV, regardless of age. Your risk is based almost entirely on exposure to the infection. In cases of sexually transmitted HSV, people are more at risk when they participate in risky sexual behavior without the use of protection, such as condoms. Other risk factors for HSV-2 include: Having multiple sex partnersHaving sex at a younger ageBeing femaleHaving another sexually transmitted infection (STI)Having a weakened immune system If a pregnant woman is having an outbreak of genital herpes at the time of childbirth, it can expose the baby to both types of HSV, and may put them at risk for serious complications. Signs and Symptoms of herpes simplex It is important to understand that someone may not have visible sores or symptoms and still be infected by the virus. And they may transmit the virus to others. Some of the symptoms associated with this virus include: Blistering sores (in the mouth or on the genitals)Pain during urination (genital herpes)Itching You may also experience symptoms that are similar to the flu. These symptoms can include: FeverSwollen lymph nodesHeadachesTirednessLack of appetite HSV can also spread to the eyes, causing a condition called herpes keratitis. This can cause symptoms such as eye pain, discharge, and a gritty feeling in the eye. Complications Herpes simplex in any patient with a seriously compromised immune system can cause serious and even life-threatening complications, including: PneumoniaInflammation of the esophagusEncephalitis (inflammation of the brain)Destruction of the adrenal glandsDisseminated herpes (spread of infection throughout the body)Liver damage, including hepatitisUrinary retention in women, especially with the first outbreak, is not uncommon. Some women need to use an indwelling catheter for a few days to a week. Potential effects of herpes in the newborn Herpes infection in a newborn can cause a range of symptoms, including skin rash, fevers, mouth sores, and eye infections. ￼ If left untreated, neonatal herpes is a very serious and even life-threatening condition. Neonatal herpes can spread to the brain and central nervous system causing encephalitis and meningitis and leading to mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and death. Herpes can also spread to internal organs, such as the liver and lungs. Infants infected with herpes are treated with acyclovir. It is important to treat babies quickly, before the infection spreads to the brain and other organs. Diagnosis Testing of a sample taken from the soreIf doctors suspect a brain infection, magnetic resonance imaging and a spinal tapHSV infection is usually easy for doctors to recognize. If unsure, doctors may use a swab to take a sample of material from the sore and send the swab to a laboratory to grow (culture) and identify the virus.Sometimes doctors examine material scraped from the blisters under a microscope. Although the virus itself cannot be seen, scrapings sometimes contain enlarged infected cells (giant cells) that are characteristic of infection by a herpes-type virus.Blood tests to identify antibodies to HSV can also be helpful. Certain blood tests can distinguish between HSV-1 infection and HSV-2 infection.If a brain infection is suspected, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and a spinal tap (lumbar puncture) to obtain a sample of cerebrospinal fluid may be done. What are the treatments for herpes? There are a variety of treatment options. These include: Home remedies Lightly salted baths can help alleviate the symptoms of herpes.Lightly salted baths can help alleviate the symptoms of herpes.Several home remedies can help, including:Taking painkillers, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofenBathing in lightly salted water helps relieve symptomsSoaking in a warm sitz bathApplying petroleum jelly to the affected areaAvoiding tight clothing around the affected areaWashing hands thoroughly, especially after touching the affected areaRefraining from sexual activity until symptoms have goneIf urinating is painful, apply some cream or lotion to the urethra, for example, lidocaineSome people find that using ice packs can help. Never apply ice directly to the skin, always wrap it in a cloth or towel first. Medication No drug can get rid of the herpes virus. Doctors may prescribe an antiviral, such as acyclovir, which prevents the virus from multiplying. Antiviral medications will help the outbreak clear up faster and will also help reduce the severity of symptoms.Doctors usually prescribe antivirals the first time a person has symptoms. As recurrent outbreaks are usually mild, treatment is not usually necessary. Episodic treatment and suppressive treatment Episodic treatment is generally for people who have less than six recurrences in 1 year. Doctors may prescribe a 5-day course of antivirals each time symptoms appear. Doctors prescribe suppressive treatment if a person experiences more than six recurrences in a year. In some cases, a doctor my recommend that the individual takes daily antiviral treatment indefinitely. The aim here is to prevent further recurrences. Although suppressive treatment significantly reduces the risk of passing HSV to a partner, there is still a risk. Other treatments For people who have minimal discomfort, the only treatment needed for recurring herpes of the lips or genitals is to keep the infected area clean by gentle washing with soap and water.Applying ice may be soothing and reduce swelling.Applying prescription or nonprescription topical anesthetics, such as tetracaine cream or benzocaine ointment, may help relieve pain.If the mouth contains many sores, the mouth can be rinsed with lidocaine, which should not be swallowed.Topical anesthetics should be used only about once every few hours. If used more often, these drugs can have harmful side effects.Pain relievers may be taken for pain. Prevention People should avoid activities and foods known to trigger recurrences. For example, they people with oral HSV infection should avoid exposure to sunlight as much as possible.Because HSV infection is contagious, people with infection of the lips should avoid kissing as soon as they feel the first tingling (or, if no tingling is felt, when a blister appears) until the sore has completely healed. They should not share a drinking glass and, if possible, should not touch their lips. They should also avoid oral sex.People with genital herpes should use condoms at all times. Even when there are no visible blisters and no symptoms, the virus may be present on the genitals and can be spread to sex partners.Vaccines for the prevention of HSV infections are being developedTalk with your doctor about taking herpes medication every day, which can lower your chances of spreading herpes.Don’t have sex during a herpes outbreak, even with a condom. There may be sores on places the condom doesn’t cover.Talk with your doctor about taking herpes medication every day, which can lower your chances of spreading herpes.Don’t have sex during a herpes outbreak, even with a condom. There may be sores on places the condom doesn’t coverDr. Shailendra Kawtikwar9 Likes34 Answers
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Unilateral painful corneal lesion after fluorescein staining. Diagnosis?Dr. E Ahmed0 Like21 Answers
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this pt has herpes viral infection plz advise for treatment and investigations@Dr. Rini ThakurDr. Mueez Ahmad10 Likes31 Answers
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A 40yrs of female patient admitted with the c/o high grade fever, neck stiffness, slurred speech, diplopia, confused, irrelevant talking. Did MRI(plain)brain and started on antiviral, anticonvulsant, mannitol and steroid. After a few days patient has developed paraplgia, did Spectroscopy. Report says pontine glioma. What will be the further plan,management and prognosis?Dr. Nihar Meshram9 Likes43 Answers